8th Annual R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Cosmology and Astrophysics Lecture
I survey how we humans have repeatedly underestimated not only the size of our cosmos, but also the power of our humans minds to understand it using mathematical equations. My examples include the recent claims of B-modes in the cosmic microwave background as smoking-gun evidence for quantum gravity, Hawking radiation, and cosmological inflation. I also highlight mysteries such as the nature of dark matter, dark energy and our early universe, and how creating the largest-ever 3D maps of our universe can shed new light on them.
Known as "Mad Max" for his unorthodox ideas and passion for adventure, his scientific interests range from precision cosmology to the ultimate nature of reality, all explored in his new popular book "Our Mathematical Universe". He is an MIT physics professor with more than two hundred technical papers and has featured in dozens of science documentaries. His work with the SDSS collaboration on galaxy clustering shared the first prize in Science magazine's "Breakthrough of the Year: 2003."
CCAPP is proud to present the Annual R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Cosmology and Astrophysics Lecture, the annual series of public lectures supported by a generous gift from the late Captain Forrest R. Biard, U.S. Navy, Ret., a 1953 MS recipient from the Physics Department at The Ohio State University. The Biard Lecture is the cornerstone of CCAPP's outreach effort, bringing forefront research in cosmology and astrophysics to OSU's undergraduates, the University community, and the general public.
Forrest R. Biard, who passed away in 2009, was born in Bonham, Texas, and moved to Dallas when he was eleven years old. After graduating from North Dallas High School in 1930, he entered the U.S. naval Academy, graduating 11th in the class of 1933-34.
He first served on the USS New Orleans, and in 1939 was sent to Tokyo to learn the language and culture of the Japanese people. This education and experience proved invaluable as he became one of twelve men who later deciphered the Japenese code book. The breaking of this code book allowed the U.S. and its Allies to win the Battle of Midway, and eventually to win World War II.
After World War II ended, Captain Biard attended post-graduate school in Annapolis, Maryland, where he studied nuclear engineering, nuclear physics, and radiation hazards. From there he went on to pursue a master's degree in physics at The Ohio State University (OSU).
While working on his master's program at OSU, Captain Biard was again called to serve his country as the operations officer for the first hydrogen bomb test. He later returned to OSU and received his master's degree in 1953.
Captain Biard eventually went back to Japan as captain of the Luzon, a battleship repair vessel. After retiring from the Navy, Captain Biard began teaching physics at Long Beach City College where he taught until his retirement in the 1980s. While at Long Beach City College, he originated an innovative course that used a variety of music tools, including the human voice, to illustrate the physics aspects of acoustics. That class was later filmed and shown on public television.
Captain Biard's hobbies included reading and discussing physics, including quantum theory, the big bang theory, and astrophysics. He also enjoyed reading and translating Japanese history books, particularly those about World War II. Always a sociable person, he enjoyed meeting new people and making new friends.
A Department of Physics Distinguished Alumnus, Captain Biard donated funds to create the R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Lectureship in Cosmology and Astrophysics, named in honor of his parents.
The Ohio State University Foundation featured an aritcle about Captain Forrest Biard and this Lectureship in their 2010 Annual Report. View the Article (PDF) (2 pages).
7th Annual R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Cosmology and Astrophysics Lecture
Galaxies are complex systems of stars, gas, and dark matter. These
three major components interact in many different ways, leading
galaxies to have the structure and motions we see today. I will
discuss the current paradigm for galaxy formation, and show how some
of the most beautiful Hubble Space Telescope observations can be
used to extract detailed histories of the nearest galaxies, providing
some of the most rigorous constraints on the physics that controls
Julianne Dalcanton is a Professor of Astronomy, at the University of Washington, and researcher for Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Her main work is on the area of galaxy formation and evolution. She is currently leading the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program on the Hubble Space Telescope.
She became known worldwide by discovering the comet C/1999 F2, which is named after her. She is also a contributor to the physics blog Cosmic Variance.
To see pictures from this Biard Lecture, click here
6th Annual R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Cosmology and Astrophysics Lecture
The 1959 Nature article by Giuseppe Cocconi and Phil Morrison provided the theoretical underpinnings for SETI. Well over 100 search programs have been conducted since that time, including the long-running survey using the Ohio State University Radio Observatory. Most of these searches have been looking for photons at radio and optical wavelengths, but others have probed for exotic physics and astroengineering projects; none has yet been successful.
Critics have suggested that this means humans are alone in the cosmos. But that is far too strong a conclusion to draw from far too small an observational sampling. An appropriate analogy would be to retrieve one glass of water from the ocean, and having found no fish in that sample, to conclude that there were no fish in the ocean.
Instead of concluding that intelligent life on Earth is unique, it is more appropriate to note that in 50+ years our ability to search for electromagnetic signals has improved by at least 14 orders of magnitude and that these improvements are still occurring at an exponential rate. In addition, in the past 50+ years, the detection of exoplanets, and a growing appreciation of the robustness of extremophiles on our own planet have given the cosmos at least an appearance of being more biofriendly.
If we are looking in the right way, our observational tools will evolve to sample sufficiently large volumes of phase space before SETI turns 100, that evidence for cosmic company can reasonably be expected. If we are not yet looking in the right way, this same exponential growth in our astronomical tools and in new technologies may well uncover evidence of a type we are not wise enough today to predict.
"The probability of success is difficult to estimate, but if we never search, the chance of success is zero." (Cocconi and Morrison, 1959)
Jill Tarter holds the Bernard M. Oliver Chair for SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, seti.org) at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California. Tarter received her Bachelor of Engineering Physics Degree with Distinctionfrom Cornell University and her Master's Degree and a Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of California, Berkeley. She is a Fellow of the AAAS and of the California Academy of Sciences, where she also serves on the Board of Trustees. She is passionate about science education and strives to secure funding for SETI research, particularly with the Allen Telescope Array. Tarter's work has brought her wide recognition, including two Public Service Medals from NASA. In 2004 Time Magazine named her one of the Time 100 most influential people in the world. Tarter was one of three TED prizewinners in 2009, and was a recipient of the Silicon Valley Women of Influence 2010 Award.
Many people are now familiar with her work as portrayed by Jodie Foster in the movie Contact.
The Sun is so large that a million Earths could fit inside it, yet there are stars much larger than the Sun, and the distances between stars and galaxies are truly awesome. The large sizes encountered in astronomy are part of its fascination, but depicting them is perhaps astronomy's greatest challenge. Professor Gott will tell about his Map of the Universe, which preserves shapes (as the Mercator map of the Earth does), but which allows him to plot everything from satellites in Earth orbit to the moon and planets to distant stars and galaxies, out to the cosmic microwave background, the most distant thing we can see -- all on a single map. The L.A. Times compared it to famous maps over the centuries, calling it "arguably the most mind-bending map to date." Professor Gott will tell how he got in the 2012 Guinness Book of Records for measuring the "largest structure in the universe," the Sloan Great Wall -- 1.37 billion light years long. He will show size comparisons and maps from his new National Geographic book Sizing Up the Universe, in collaboration with Professor Robert J. Vanderbei, answering such questions as, how big was Hurricane Katrina compared to the Great Red Spot (a centuries-old storm on Jupiter)? A series of size comparisons, each covering a scale a thousand times larger than the one before, will show everything from Buzz Aldrin's footprint on the moon, to asteroids, moons, planets, stars, black holes, and galaxies, ending with the first real picture of the entire visible universe.
J. Richard Gott is noted for his contributions to cosmology and general relativity. He has received the Robert J. Trumpler Award, an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, the Astronomical League Award, and Princeton's President's Award for Distinguished Teaching. He discovered exact solutions to Einstein's field equations for the gravitational field around one cosmic string (in 1985) and two moving cosmic strings (in 1991). This second solution has been of particular interest because, if the strings move fast enough, at nearly the speed of light, time travel to the past can occur. His paper with Li-Xin Li, "Can the Universe Create Itself?" explores the idea of how the laws of physics may permit the universe to be its own mother. His book Time Travel in Einstein's Universe was selected by Booklist as one of four "Editors' Choice" science books for 2001. He has published papers on map projections in Cartographica. His picture has appeared Time, Newsweek, and the New York Times. He wrote an article on time travel for Time magazine as part of its cover story on the future (April 10, 2000). His and Mario Juric's Map of the Universe appeared in the New York Times (January 13, 2004), New Scientist, and Astronomy. Gott and Juric are in Guinness World Records 2006 for finding the largest structure in the universe: the Sloan Great Wall of Galaxies (1.37 billion light years long). Gott's Copernican argument for space colonization was the subject of an article in the New York Times (July 17, 2007).
Sizing Up the Universe reveals an ingenious new way to envision the outsize proportions of space, based on the work of Princeton University professors Richard Gott and Robert Vanderbei. Using scaled maps, object comparisons, and beautiful space photographs, it demonstrates the actual size of objects in the cosmos -- from Buzz Aldrin's historic footprint to the visible universe and beyond. The authors offer visual comparisons with astonishing precision and maximum reader-friendliness, conveying clear and understandable explanations of unimaginable vastness. Plus, as an unprecedented bonus, their 1.5-million-selling Map of the Universe is published here for the first time ever in a book -- presented on an oversize foldout page that maximizes its eye-popping presentation of satellites, planets, stars, and galaxies. Based on the popularity of the map and of Richard Gott's Time Travel in Einstein's Universe, and offering innovative ways to appreciate the majesty of the universe, this new title should soar.
Join historic NASA astronauts whose collective careers have spanned the Mercury, Apollo and Space Shuttle Programs for a lively and informative panel discussion that celebrates the achievements of NASA's manned space program and explores the future of space exploration. Featured panelists will be Senator John Glenn (Ret.) - Mercury-6/STS-95, John M. Grunsfeld, Ph.D. - STS 67/81/103/109/125 and the Honorable Harrison H. Schmitt - Apollo 17.
This panel discussion is the fourth in the annual R. Jack and Forest Lynn Biard Lectureship in Cosmology and Astrophysics presented by The Ohio State University Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP). The event will be held at COSI, the Center of Science and Industry on Sunday, November 21 from 2:00-3:30 p.m. with broadcast support provided by WOSU Public Media.
There is no charge for the lecture, however reservations are required.
Visit http://nasapanel.eventbrite.com/ to reserve on-line or call COSI at 614-228-2674.
If you are not able to attend but would still like to watch the lecture it will be streaming live on NASA TV. Watch it Live on NASA TV
Lecture attendees may also attend a free viewing of the giant screen film "The Dream is Alive" at 1:00 p.m. or 5:00 p.m. (38 minute run time).
Event Partners: Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP), the Center of Science and Industry (COSI), WOSU Public Media, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), NASA-GSFC and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI)
Filmmaker Paul Devlin follows the story of his brother, Mark Devlin PhD, as he leads a tenacious team of scientists hoping to figure out how all the galaxies formed by launching a revolutionary new telescope under a NASA high-altitude balloon.
Their adventure takes them from Arctic Sweden to Inuit polar bear country in Canada, where catastrophic failure forces the team to try all over again on the desolate ice in Antarctica. No less than the understanding of the evolution and origins of our Universe is at stake on this exciting escapade that seeks to answer humankind's most basic question, How did we get here?
BLAST! is about the crazy life of scientists. Their professional obsessions, personal and family sacrifices, and philosophical and religious questioning all give emotional resonance to a spectacular and suspenseful story of space exploration.
More information about BLAST! and movie trailer: blastthemovie.com
PICTURES FROM THE EVENT! http://tinyurl.com/ycop336
The Reese W. Flower Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics, at the University of Pennsylvania, Mark Devlin is an experimental cosmologist. He designs and constructs the devices that collect the data that help us understand our universe. Rather than working out theories on a chalkboard, he's more likely to be found crawling inside the frame of a car-sized telescope, soldering gun in hand, or standing on the windswept ice of Antarctica preparing to send that high-tech appliance to the very edge of space on a NASA balloon.
Mark's recent projects include BLAST (Balloon-Borne, Large-Aperture, Submillimeter Telescope) a sophisticated scanning device that detects submillimeter light from distance star-forming dust clouds while suspended beneath a NASA high-altitude balloon at the top of the atmosphere.
More information about Mark Devlin is available at The University of Pennsylvania and http://blastthemovie.com/about.html
A five-time Emmy winner for his work on NBC's Olympics and CBS's Tour de France, Paul Devlin's films include Power Trip, which screened in 60 countries, theatrically across the United States and on PBS's Independent Lens, was nominated for an Independent Spirit Award and has won 10 film festival awards, including top prizes at Berlin, Hot Docs in Toronto, and Florida.
More information about Paul Devlin can be found here: http://blastthemovie.com/about.html
Ninety-five percent of the universe is missing! Astronomical observations suggest that most of the mass of the universe is in a mysterious form called dark matter and most of the energy in the universe is in an even more mysterious form called dark energy. We have no understanding of the nature of the stuff that makes up our universe. In a nontechnical discussion, I will outline the evidence for dark matter and dark energy, and discuss why cosmologists feel that unlocking the secrets of dark matter and dark energy will illuminate the nature of space and time and connect the quantum with the cosmos.
Edward W. Kolb (known to most as Rocky) is the Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor of Astronomy & Astrophysics and the College and Chair of the Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics at the University of Chicago, as well as a member of the Enrico Fermi Institute and the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics. The field of Rocky's research is the application of elementary-particle physics to the very early Universe. In addition to over 200 scientific papers, he is a co-author of The Early Universe, the standard textbook on particle physics and cosmology.